Chinese Taipei first competed at the Melbourne 1956 Olympic Games. A team of 21 competed across five sports.
Under an agreement with the International Olympic Committee in the years from 1979 to 1981, they participated under the name Chinese Taipei with a specially designed NOC flag. Decathlete YANG Chuan-Kang claimed their first medal, a silver at the Rome 1960 Olympic Games after an epic struggle with Rafer JOHNSON of the USA.
YANG completed three Olympic decathlons (1956-64) and never finished outside the top 10. CHI Cheng was the first female athlete to win an Olympic medal for Chinese Taipei. She took 80m hurdles bronze at the Mexico 1968 Olympic Games.
Since 1984, they have been present at every Olympic Games. Weightlifter TSAI Wen Yee won bronze in the men's featherweight at the Los Angeles Olympic Games that year.
At the Barcelona 1992 Olympic Games, Chinese Taipei were runners-up in baseball, and four years later in Atlanta, CHEN Jing took silver in women's table tennis. She had previously won gold for the People's Republic of China in 1988.
At the Athens 2004 Olympic Games, Chinese Taipei won two gold medals on the same day in taekwondo. CHEN Shih Hsien won the women's flyweight and CHU Mu Yen took gold in the men's flyweight. He added a bronze medal at the Beijing 2008 Olympic Games.
Chinese Taipei have also won medals in archery and women's weightlifting.
In 1932, China had sent one athlete to the Games in Los Angeles. LIU Changchun took part in the men's 100m. In 1936 a team of 54 competed in Berlin and included the team sports of men's football and basketball.